Narration কাকে বলে? Narration করার সহজ নিয়মগুলো জেনে নিন

Narration/
Changing Speech

১. কোনো কথাকে পরিবর্তন না করে তাকে Inverted Commas বা উদ্ধৃতি চিহ্নের (‘‘ ’’) মধ্যে রাখা। একে বলা হয় Direct Speech বা Direct Narration।
Direct Speech: He said to me, "I arrived here yesterday."

এখন, Direct Narration related কয়েকটি term লক্ষ কর।
🍭 Reported speech: Inverted commas এর ভিতরের অংশকে Reported speech বলে।
🍭 Speaker: Reported speech যে উপস্থাপন করে তাকে Speaker বলে। এটা inverted commas এর বাহিরে থাকে।
🍭 Reporting verb: Speaker যে verb টি ব্যবহার করে তাকে Reporting verb বলে।
🍭 Listener (Person spoken to): Speaker যার কাছে reported speech টি উপস্থাপন করে তাকে Listener বলে।

২. অন্যের ভাষায়: এক্ষেত্রে বক্তার নিজের কথা হুবহু উদ্ধৃত না করে তার বক্তব্য connector/ linker যোগে অন্যের ভাষায় প্রকাশ করা হয়। একে বলা হয় Indirect Speech বা Indirect Narration। উপর্যুক্ত direct speech টি পরিবর্তন করলে indirect speech টি হবে:
Indirect Speech: He told me that he had arrived there the previous day.

উদাহরণ দুটি লক্ষ করলে আমরা নিম্নোক্ত পরিবর্তন পাই:
1. Person: I পরিবর্তিত হয়ে he হয়েছে।
2. Tense: Past Simple পরিবর্তিত হয়ে Past Perfect হয়েছে। (enjoyed → had arrived)
3. Adverb of time & place: yesterday পরিবর্তিত হয়ে the previous day হয়েছে।
4. Connector & reporting verb: একটি connector “that” ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে এবং Inverted Commas বাদ দেয়া হয়েছে। Reporting verb ‘said’ পরিবর্তিত হয়ে told হয়েছে।
এখন, নিম্নে এই পরিবর্তন সম্পর্কিত নিয়ম দেয়া হলো:

Rules of Changing Narration
Person পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম:
Rule- 1:
Reported Speech এর অন্তর্গত First Person সর্বদা Speaker অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়। যেমন:
Direct: He said to me, "I have done my duty." (এখানে Speaker হলো He; এবং listener হলো me)
Indirect: He said to me that he had done his duty. (1st person I ও my এর পরিবর্তে he ও his বসানো হয়েছে।)

Rule- 2: Reported Speech এর অন্তর্গত Second Person সর্বদা listener অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়। যেমন - 
Direct: He said to me, "You have done your duty." (এখানে Speaker হলো He; এবং listener হলো me)
Indirect: He said to me that I had done my duty. (2nd person you ও your এর পরিবর্তে I ও my বসানো হয়েছে।)

Rule- 3: Reported Speech এর অন্তর্গত third person এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন:
Direct: I said to you, "He had done his duty." (এখানে Speaker হলো I; এবং listener হলো you)
Indirect: I said to you that he had done his duty.

Rule- 4: We এর মাঝে যদি Speaker, listener অম@র্ভুক্ত থাকে বা We দ্বারা যদি মানব জাতি বুঝায় তবে we পরিবর্তন হবে না।
Direct: He said to me, ''We should say our prayer every day.'' (এখানে we এর দ্বারা he ও me কে বুঝায়।)
Indirect: He said that we should say our prayer every day.
Direct: The teacher said, ''We must die one day.''
Indirect: The teacher said that we must die one day.

Narration/ Changing Speech করার সহজ নিয়ম pdf download

Tense পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম
Rule- 1: (a) Reporting Verb Present Tense বা Future Tense হলে Reported Speech এর verb এর Tense এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। কেবল Person পরিবর্তন হয়।
Direct: He says, "I am ill."
Indirect: He says that he is ill.
Direct: Shiplo will say, "He writes a letter."
Indirect: Shiplo will say that he writes a letter.

Rule- 2: (b) Reporting verb টি Past Tense হলে Reported Speech এর Verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে Corresponding Past Tense (অনুরূপ Past Tense) হয়।
(i) Present Indefinite:
He said, “I write a letter.”
Past Indefinite:
He said that he wrote a letter.

Rule- 3: Reporting verb টি Past Tense হলেও Reported Speech কোনো Universal truth (চিরন্তন সত্য) or habitual fact (অভ্যাসগত কর্ম) প্রকাশ করলে verb এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Direct: He said, "The earth moves round the sun."
Indirect: He said that the earth moves round the sun.
Direct: The teacher said, "The sun rises in the east."
Indirect: The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.

Rule- 4: Reporting verb টি Past Tense হলেও যদি statement বা situation up - to - date থাকে তবে tense পরিবর্তন করা বক্তার statement এর উপর নির্ভর করে। তখনই পরিবর্তন করা হয় যখন বক্তার statement - এর সাথে Listener একমত না হন বা এর সত্যতা সম্পর্কে নিশ্চিত না হন। (Michael Swan)
Direct: Adrian said, “I am having a party next weekend.”
Indirect: Adrian said that he is (or was) having a party next weekend.
Direct: She said, “I am fourteen.” But I don’t believe.
Indirect: She said that she was fourteen, but I don’t believe. (এখানে বোঝা যাচ্ছে Listener - এর সাথে Speaker একমত না)

Person এর বিভিন্ন রূপ:
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Subject form
I
we
you
he, she, it
they

Object form
me
us
you
him, her, it

Possessive form
my
our
your
his, her
their
Adverb of Time and Place পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম:
নৈকট্যসূচক শব্দগুলো Indirect Speech এ পরিবর্তিত হয়ে দূরত্বসূচক শব্দে পরিণত হয়। যেমন - 
‘আজ’ প্রকাশক শব্দের পরিবর্তে ‘ঐ’ অর্থাৎ ‘that’ বসবে।
Direct
This + সময় প্রকাশক শব্দ:
He said, “He is coming this week.”

Indirect
That + সময় প্রকাশক শব্দ:
He said that he was coming that week.

Today ⇒ That day

‘গত’ প্রকাশক শব্দের পরিবর্তে the previous বসবে।
Yesterday ⇒ the previous day
Last week/ year etc ⇒ The previous week/ year etc

‘আগামী’ প্রকাশক শব্দের পরিবর্তে the following বসবে।
Tomorrow ⇒ the following day
Next week/ year etc ⇒ The following week/ year etc

অন্যান্য
This/ that/ these + noun ⇒ The + noun
He said, “I have bought this shirt for my father.
He said that he had bought the shirt for his father.

This/ these (pronoun হলে) ⇒ It, they, them
He said, “We will discuss this tomorrow.
He said that they would discuss it the next day.

Here ⇒ There
Come ⇒ Go
Now ⇒ Then
Ago ⇒ Before

উল্লেখ থাকে যে,
(i) যদি বক্তব্য একই দিনে বা একই স্থানে হয় তবে এ ধরনের পরিবর্তন দরকার হয় না।
Direct: At breakfast this morning he said, "I will be very busy today."
Indirect: At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today.

(ii) যদি স্থান স্পষ্টভাবে বোঝা না যায় তবে here/come এর পরিবর্তন দরকার হবে না।
Direct: I said to him, ''Why have you come here?"
Indirect: I asked him why he had come here.

(iii) Here বলতে যদি world বুঝায় তবে here এর পরিবর্তন দরকার হবে না।
Direct: The prophet said, ''Allah has sent us here to earn for the next world."
Indirect: The prophet said that Allah had sent us here to earn for the next world.

(iv) কখনো কখনো here এর অর্থ অনুযায়ী বিভিন্ন phrase এ রূপান্তর করা যায়।
Direct: He said to me, ''Sit here."
Indirect: He told me to sit beside him/ with him.

Connector ও Reporting Verb ব্যবহারের নিয়ম

Assertive sentence
Speaker + say/said + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে Conjunction "that" বসে + subject + verb
Or,
Speaker + tell/told + listener + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে Conjunction "that" বসে + subject + verb

উল্লেখ থাকে যে:
(i) Say/ think verb - এর পর that conjunction উহ্য থাকে। (Michael Swan)
(ii) Tell এর পর অবশ্যই একটি object বসাতে হয় কিন্তু Say এর পর object বসাতে হয় না।

Interrogative Sentence
Reported Speech - টি Auxiliary verb দিয়ে শুরু হলে:
Speaker + ask/inquire of +Listener + if/ whether + subject + verb + বাকি অংশ।
Direct: The old man said to the maid, "Can you give me some food?"
Indirect: The old man asked the maid if she could give him some food.
Direct: He said to me, "Will you return the book to me today?"
Indirect: He asked me if I would return the book to him that day.

কিন্তু Reported Speech - টি wh - word (যেমন who, whom, whose, what, which ইত্যাদি) দ্বারা আরম্ভ হলে:
Speaker + ask/inquire of +Listener + wh - word + subject + verb + বাকি অংশ।
N.B: Wh word: who, when, where, what, how, why, which

Direct: The teacher said to Kamal, "Why are you talking in the class?"
Indirect: The teacher asked Kamal why he was talking in the class.
Direct: Sawan said to Sejan, "Why are you late for school everyday?"
Indirect: Sawan asked Sejan why he was late for school everyday.

Imperative Sentence
Speaker + request /order/advise/tell/ask +Listener + *to/not to/never to +Reported speech এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।
Direct: He said to me, "Please give me a glass of water."
Indirect: He requested me to give him a glass of water.
Direct: The teacher said to the student, "Always speak the truth."
Indirect: The teacher advised the student to speak the truth always.
Direct: I said to mother, "Let him come with us."
Indirect: I asked my mother to let him come with us.

Please থাকলে request, নির্দেশ বুঝালে order, উপদেশ বুঝালে advise, Let me/ them থাকলে ask এবং অন্যান্য ক্ষেত্রে tell ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

⦿ Imperative sentence টি যদি do not দিয়ে শুরু হয় তবে not to বসে এবং never থাকলে never to বসে।
Direct: The teacher said to the student, "Never tell a lie."
Indirect: The teacher advised the student never to tell a lie.
Direct: He said to me, "Don't smoke."
Indirect: He told me not to smoke.
Imperative Sentence (Let us/Let’s)

⦿ Speaker + suggested +(Listener) + Reported speech এর মূল verb - এর ing করে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।
Direct: He said to me, "Let us go out for a walk."
Indirect: He suggested going out for a walk.

Optative Sentence
Speaker + wished বা prayed বসে + that + Subject + might +মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।
Direct: Father said to me, "May God bless you."
Indirect: Father wished/prayed that God might bless me.
Direct: We said, "Long live our president."
Indirect: We wished that our president might live long.
Direct: Mother said to me, "May you be happy in your life."
Indirect: Mother wished that I might be happy in my life.

Exclamatory Sentence
Speaker + exclaimed + that বসে + Subject + verb+how/what এর পরিবর্তে very/ great + বাকি অংশ।
Direct: The man said, "How fine the bird is!"
Indirect: The man exclaimed that the bird was very fine.

NB: Reported Speech How or What দ্বারা শুরু না হলে very/great বসাতে হয় না।
Direct: He said, "Alas! I am undone."
Indirect: He exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.

যদি subject ও verb না থাকে তবে subject ও verb হিসেবে it was/ is অতিরিক্ত লিখতে হবে।
Direct: He said, “What a pity!”
Indirect: He exclaimed that it was a great pity.

NB: Noun এর পূর্বে great এবং adjective/adverb এর পূর্বে very বসে।

Rules of Passage Narration
Rule- 1: সমস্ত Passage টি পড়ে Speaker ও listener (শ্রোতা) এবং Sentence গুলোর mood (ক্রিয়ার ধরন) সনাক্ত করে নিতে হবে।

Rule- 2: Reporting Verb - টি মাঝে বা শেষে থাকলেও Indirect করার সময় তাকে Sentence এর শুরুতে নিয়ে আসতে হবে।
Direct: "You look a little bit like my mother," Jerry said to the authoress, "Especially in the dark by the fire."
Indirect: Jerry told the authoress that she looked a little bit like his mother especially in the dark by the fire.

Direct: "He was very serious then," I said. "But I don't know what happened now."
Indirect: I said that he had been very serious then. I further said that I didn't know what happened then.

Direct: "Be attentive and punctual or leave the camp," said the coach. "Sorry, sir," I replied.
Indirect: The coach ordered me to be attentive and punctual or to leave the camp. I respectfully said that I was sorry.

Direct: "We should execute all our plans as soon as possible," said the honourable home minister.
Indirect: The honourable home minister said that they should execute all their plans as soon as possible.

Direct: "Take this money and go to the market." "Your brother is coming today," said father.
Indirect: Father ordered me to take that money and go to the market. He added that my brother was coming that day.

Rule- 3: কোনো বক্তার পর পর দুটি উক্তি (Speech) থাকলে এবং তা যদি same kinds of sentence হয় তবে and + linker দিয়ে যুক্ত করা যায়; Speaker + reporting verb - কে আবার লেখার দরকার হয় না। তবে ৩য় টিও যদি same kinds of sentence হয় তবে আবার Speaker + further/again + reporting verb দিয়ে শুরু করতে হবে।

Direct: He said, "I can chop some wood today. I shall come again tomorrow. I always keep my words."
Indirect: He said that he could chop some wood that day and he said that he would come again the next day. He further said that he always kept/ keep his words.

Direct: Hasan said, "I will meet him. I will explain everything to him. I hope he will help us after that."
Indirect: Hasan said that he would meet him and explain everything to him. Then he hoped that he would help them after that.

Direct: Imran said to Popy, "My father is a freedom fighter. He fought bravely in the battle field. He is still brave to fight against all the odds."
Indirect: Imran said to Popy that his father was a freedom fighter and had fought bravely in the battlefield. He (I) further said that he (f) was still brave to fight against all the odds.

Direct: He said, "I sell them in the local market. In the evening I work in a restaurant. I return home late at night."
Indirect: He said that he sold them in the local market and in the evening he worked in a restaurant. He again said that he returned home late at night.

Direct: "You were too young then when I first visited here. People call it a blissful place. I think you like it," said my father to me.
Indirect: My father said to me that I had been too young then when he had first visited there and said that people called that a blissful place. He added that he thought I liked that.

⦿ যদি different kinds of sentence হয় তবে and + reporting verb + linker দিয়ে যুক্ত করা যাবে।
Direct: "I do not know the way. Do you?" he asked her.
Indirect: He said that he did not know the way and asked her whether she did.

Direct: Mother said to me, "You should maintain your routine properly," "Don't you think it is good for your study?"
Indirect: Mother said to me that I should maintain my routine properly and asked me if I didn't think it was good for my study.

Direct: The teacher said to him, "You are improving day by day." "Listen to me, you have to work hard more to bring perfection."
Indirect: The teacher said to him that he was improving day by day and advised him to listen to him carefully that he had to work hard more to bring perfection.

⦿ যদি ২য় বাক্যটি প্রথম বাক্যের কারণ প্রকাশ করে সেক্ষেত্রে শুধু since/as দিয়েও যুক্ত করা যায়। এভাবে sentence - এর মধ্যের সম্পর্ক অনুসারে যেকোনো linker বসানো যায়।
Direct: "I will not come tomorrow. I am ill," he said.
Indirect: He said that he would not come the next day as he was ill.

Direct: Raiyan said "I failed in the examination. I did not work hard."
Indirect: Raiyan said that he failed in the examination since he had not worked hard.

Direct: The man said, "The thief was not seen. There was dark all around."
Indirect: The man said that the thief had not seen since there had been dark all around.

Direct: The batsman said, "I played bad. The pitch is too slow to bat."
Indirect: The batsman said that he had played bad as the pitch was too slow to bat.

Direct: The workers said, "We will go for a strike. We are not getting our salaries timely."
Indirect: The workers said that they would go for a strike as they were not getting their salaries timely.

Direct: Father said to me, "I could not withdraw the money. I have lost my ATM card."
Indirect: Father said to me that he could not withdraw the money since he had lost his ATM card.

Rule- 4: যেকোনো ধরনের বাক্যে please থাকলে reporting verb - টি asked/ requested হবে এবং imperative - এর নিয়মে করতে হবে।
Direct: He said to me, "Could I see Tom, please?"
Indirect: He asked/ requested me to see Tom.

Direct: He said to the Doctor, "Please, save my daughter."
Indirect: He requested the doctor to save his daughter.

Direct: I said to her, "Would you please help me finding the address?"
Indirect: I requested/ asked her to help me finding the address.

Direct: Akik said to me, "Could I have a ticket, please?"
Indirect: Akik requested me to have a ticket.

Direct: She said to her mother, "Please, don't worry for me."
Indirect: She asked/ requested her mother not to worry for her.

Rule- 5: You ought to/ should/ had better - যুক্ত assertive sentence - এর ক্ষেত্রে বা If I were you থাকলে তা বাদ যাবে এবং reporting verb - টি advised হবে এবং imperative - এর নিয়মে করতে হবে।

Direct: "You had better hurry, Jony," she said.
Indirect: She advised Jony to hurry.

Direct: "If I were you, I would wait," I said to him.
Indirect: I advised him to wait.

Direct: I said to her, "You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future."
Indirect: I advised her to watch the way she talk to me in the future.

Direct: "They had better be here before we start dinner," she said.
Indirect: She advised to be there before they start dinner.

Direct: He said to me, "You ought to tell her everything."
Indirect: He advised me to tell her everything.

Direct: Rashed said to Ibrahim, "If I were you, I would not do this."
Indirect: Rashed advised Ibrahim not to do that.

Rule- 6: Shall I/ we দ্বারা offer বুঝালে reporting verb - টি offered হবে এবং imperative - এর নিয়মে করতে হবে।
Direct: "Shall I bring you some tea?" he said to me.
Indirect: He offered to bring me some tea.

Direct: He said to me, "Shall I bat on top order?"
Indirect: He offered to bat on top order.

Direct: We said, "Shall we contribute some amount for the affected people?"
Indirect: We offered to contribute some amount for the affected people.

Direct: I said, "Shall I join the party?"
Indirect: I offered to join the party.

Direct: He said, "Shall I meet him tomorrow?"
Indirect: He offered to meet him the next day.

Rule- 7: কোনো ভুলের কারণে sorry/ I am sorry এসব থাকলে এর পরিবর্তে Speaker + apologized হবে।
Direct: "Sorry, sir. I will not be late again", said the student.
Indirect: The student apologized and said that he would not be late again.

Direct: The boy said, "Sorry. It was my mistake."
Indirect: The boy apologized and said that it had been his mistake.

Direct: The stranger said, "I am sorry. I don't know anyone here."
Indirect: The stranger apologized and said that he didn't know anyone there.

Direct: He said to his father, "Sorry. I will not do it again."
Indirect: He apologized to his father and said that he would not do it again.

Direct: The girl said, "I am sorry. I behaved with you wrongly."
Indirect: The girl apologized and said that she had behaved with him wrongly.

Rule- 8: কাউকে বিরক্ত করার পূর্বে sorry to/disturb you/ excuse me এসব থাকলে তা বাদ যাবে এবং এর পরিবর্তে seeking an excuse প্রথমে লিখে নিতে হবে।
Direct: "Excuse me, could you tell me where the library is?" the student asked the officer.
Indirect: Seeking an excuse, the student asked the officer if he (o) could tell him (s) where the library was.

Direct: The man said, "Excuse me, how can I find this address?"
Indirect: Seeking an excuse, the man asked how he could find that address.

Direct: The girl said to the man, "Sorry to disturb you, are you Mr. Anwar?"
Indirect: Seeking an excuse, the girl asked the man if he was Mr. Anwar.

Direct: "Sorry to disturb, would you tell me the way to the nearest college?" said the man.
Indirect: Seeking an excuse, the man asked if he would tell him the way to the nearest college.

Direct: Kamal said to his teacher, "Excuse me, sir. I did not understand the math you solved now."
Indirect: Seeking an excuse, Kamal respectfully said to his teacher that he (k) had not understood the math he (t) solved then.

Rule- 9: কোনো বক্তব্যের শুরুতে well/Oh I see থাকলে তা বাদ দিয়ে শুরুতে অবস্থা অনুযায়ী expressing surprise (বিস্ময়), agreement (সম্মতি), indignation (ক্ষোভ); আর look থাকলে তা বাদ দিয়ে শুরুতে drawing attention লিখে নিতে হবে এবং বাকি অংশের যথারীতি narration করতে হবে।
Direct: “No, I do not,” replied Anwar. “Well,” continued Mrs Amin, “Fables are stories with a message or a moral.”
Indirect: Anwar replied that he did not. Expressing surprise Mrs Amin said that fables are stories with a message or a moral./ Mrs Amin expressed surprise and said that fables are stories with a message or a moral.

Direct: Shamim said to Imran, "Oh I see. He is the MD of the company."
Indirect: Expressing surprise, Shamim said to Imran that he was the MD of the company.

Direct: The man said, "Look, I am not that man whom you are searching for."
Indirect: Drawing attention, the man said that he was not that man whom I was searching for.

Direct: "Well, I have no idea about that matter," said Mr. Jaman.
Indirect: Mr. Jaman expressed surprise and said that he had no idea about that matter.

Direct: He said, "Look, I have bought a new red car."
Indirect: Drawing attention, he said that he had bought a new red car.

Rule- 10: Exclamatory sentence - এ অনেক সময় exclamatory word (ah, bravo, ugh, shit, wow, alas) ইত্যাদি থাকে সেক্ষেত্রে বক্তার tone অনুসারে পরিবর্তন করতে হবে।
ah — with contentment/ discomfort/ disgust
bravo — with approval/admiration/encouraging
ugh — with disgust/ strain
shit — with disgust/ strain
wow — with surprise/ wonder/ admiration/ pleasure
alas — with sorrow/ pity

Direct: “Wow! What a beautiful sight!” said he.
Indirect: With wonder, he exclaimed that it was a very beautiful sight.

Direct: I said, "Ah! How easy all the questions are!"
Indirect: With contentment, I exclaimed that all the questions were very easy.

Direct: "Bravo! You were brilliant in portraying the role," said the teacher to his student.
Indirect: With admiration, the teacher said to his student that he (s) had been brilliant in portraying the role.

Direct: The boy said, "Shit! I missed the train."
Indirect: With disgust, the boy said that he had missed the train.

Direct: The Prime Minister said, "Alas! Petrol bomb has taken away so many lives."
Indirect: With sorrow, the Prime Minister said that petrol bomb has taken away so many lives.

Rule- 11: Question - এর উত্তরে যদি why দেয়া থাকে তবে এর পরিবর্তে Speaker + wanted to know the reason (for such question) লিখতে হবে।
Direct: "When will you come?"
"At 9 am. Why, mother?" said the son.
Indirect: Mother asked her son when he would come. The son replied that he would come at 9 am and wanted to know the reason (for such question).

Direct: Shetu said to Tanha, "I will not go for the study tour." "Why? We will have lots of fun."
Indirect: Shetu said to Tanha that he (s) would not go for the study tour. Tanha wanted to know the reason and said that they would have lots of fun.

Direct: Mother said to Lifa, "Are you going with me?" "No, mother." "Why?" "I am feeling unwell."
Indirect: Mother asked Lifa if she was going with her. Addressing her as mother, Lifa replied in the negative. Mother wanted to know the reason. Lifa replied that she was feeling unwell.

Direct: Sadi said to Goni, "Shimul did not attend school today." "Why?" said Goni.
Indirect: Sadi said to Goni that Shimul had not attended school that day. Goni wanted to know the reason.

Direct: Abu said to his father, "I will not study any more." "Why?" said father. "I want to go abroad."
Indirect: Abu said to his father that he would not study any more. Father wanted to know the reason. Abu said that he (a) wanted to go abroad.

Rule- 12: Imperative Sentence - এর পরে or - যুক্ত আরেকটি অংশ থাকলে ঐ অংশের পরিবর্তে and added if + subject + did not do so, Subject + would + verb বসাতে হবে।
Direct: "Read attentively or you will fail," said the teacher.
Indirect: The teacher advised to read attentively and added if he did not do so he would fail.

Direct: Mother said to me, "Start saying prayer from today or you will be punished."
Indirect: Mother advised me to start saying prayer from that day and added if I did not do so I would be punished.

Direct: He said to me, "Have patience or you will not be able to catch fish."
Indirect: He advised me to have patience and added that if I did not do so I would not be able to catch fish.

Direct: I said to Ibrahim, "Stop copying in the exam or you will never shine in life."
Indirect: I advised Ibrahim to stop copying in the exam and added that if he did not do so he would never shine in life.

Direct: The manager said, "Grab the offer now or you will not get the discount after 5 days."
Indirect: The manager advised to grab the offer then and added that if the customer did not do so he (c) would not get the discount after 5 days.

Rule- 13: Reported Speech - এ শুধু "Yes" বা "No" থাকলে Indirect করার সময় পূর্বের প্রশ্নের Subject+ বাক্যের সঙ্গে সঙ্গতিপূর্ণ appropriate auxiliary verb বসাতে হয়।
Direct: Jhumu said to Mitu, "Are you going to Chittagong tomorrow?"
"No, I have changed my decision," said Mitu.
Indirect: Jhumu asked Mitu if she was going to Chittagong the next day.
Mitu said that she was not, and added that she had changed her decision.

Direct: Tamanna said to Roshni, "Are you busy with study?"
"No, I am just reading a magazine," said Roshni.
Indirect: Tamanna asked Roshni if she (R) was busy with study.
Roshni said that she was not, and added that she (R) was just reading a magazine.

Direct: Himel said to Chandni, "Do you want to go to Dhaka with me?"
Chandni said, "Yes, we will also take Sourav with us."
Indirect: Himel asked Chandni if she wanted to go to Dhaka with him.
Chandni replied that she did and added that they would also take Sourav with them.

Direct: Sun said to Rimel, "Are you interested in playing guitar?" "Yes, I am very much interested in it," said Rimel.
Indirect: Sun asked Rimel if he (R) was interested in playing guitar. Rimel replied that he (R) was and added that he was very much interested in that.

Direct: Mother said to me, "Did you like the food?"
I said, "No, it was too much spicy."
Indirect: Mother asked me if I had liked the food.
I said that I had not and added that it had been too much spicy.

Rule- 14: Assertive sentence/imperative sentence/will you please, would you - যুক্ত interrogative sentence - এর বিপরীতে "No" বা “yes/alright/ok” থাকলে যদি বিরোধিতা বুঝায় তবে Indirect করার সময় reporting verb হিসাবে disagreed/declined, সম্মতি বুঝালে agreed লিখতে হবে; এবং জোর প্রকাশ পেলে reporting verb হিসাবে insisted/ promised লিখতে হবে।

Direct: "I am sent for playing with friends, father."
"No, you are sent to learn to read and write."
"But I won't read and write," said Jack.
"Yes, you will."
Indirect: Jack told his father that he was sent to school for playing with friends. Father disagreed and added that he was sent to learn, to read and write. But Jack said that he would not read and write. Father insisted that he would.

Direct: Captain said to Rasel, "You have to bowl the last over." "No, I will not."
Indirect: Captain said to Rasel that he (R) had to bowl the last over. Rasel disagreed and added that he (R) would not.

Direct: The manager said, "Finish the work as soon as possible."
One of the workers said, "Alright, sir. You will get the work done within a few days."
Indirect: The manager ordered to finish the work as soon as possible.
One of the workers agreed and respectfully added that he (M) would get the work done within a few days.

Direct: The boy said to his father, "Buy some chocolate for me." Father said, "No." "Yes, buy," said he.
Indirect: The boy requested his father to buy some chocolate for him (b).
Father disagreed. The boy insisted to buy.

Direct: Student said to his teacher, "I will not be able to do these homeworks. They are too much for me."
Teacher said, "Yes, you will."
Indirect: Student said to his teacher that he (s) would not be able to do those homeworks. They were too much for him (s).
Teacher insisted and added that he (s) would.

Rule- 15: Direct Speech এ "Sir" থাকলে Indirect Speech এ "Sir" এর পরিবর্তে respectfully/ politely ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
Direct: Kamal said, "Sir, I am sorry.”
Indirect: Kamal respectfully said that he was sorry.

Direct: She said, "Sir, I will be attentive from now."
Indirect: She respectfully said that she would be attentive from then.

Direct: Rajib said, "Sir, are you busy now?"
Indirect: Rajib respectfully asked if he was busy then.

Direct: He said to me, "Sir, I will be late today."
Indirect: He respectfully said to me that he would be late that day.

Direct: They said to him, "Sir, we are inviting you to inaugurate the function."
Indirect: They respectfully said to him that they were inviting him to inaugurate the function.

Rule- 16: Direct Speech - এ যদি কাউকে address করা হয় তবে তা দুভাবে indirect - এ পরিবর্তন করা যায়:
(i) যদি addressing - টি true হয় তবে তা reporting verb - এর object করতে হয়।
Direct: "Let him come with us, mother," I said.
Indirect: I asked my mother to let him come with us.

(ii) যদি addressing - টি true না হয় তবে Addressing as + সম্বোধন দিয়ে শুরু করতে হয়।
Direct: "Are you hungry, friends?" said the shrewd (চতুর) king.
Indirect: Addressing them as friends, the shrewd king asked if they were hungry.

Direct: The teacher said, "Rajib, why are you making a noise?"
Indirect: The teacher asked Rajib why he (R) was making a noise.

Direct: Rashed said to the man, "Sir, are you looking for someone?"
Indirect: Addressing the man as sir, Rashed asked him (m) if he (m) was looking for someone.

Direct: The boy said to the man, "Sir, I am new here. I don't know where the office located."
Indirect: Addressing the man as sir, the boy told that he (b) was new there and he (b) didn't know where the office located.

Rule- 17: Direct Speech এ by Allah, by Jove, by God, by my life ইত্যাদি থাকলে Swearing by Allah/Jove/God ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
Direct: "By Allah", he said, "I will not leave this house."
Indirect: Swearing by Allah, he said that he would not leave that house.

Direct: "By Allah, believe me, I did not know him," said Amrin.
Indirect: Swearing by Allah, Amrin requested to believe her and said that she had not known him.

Direct: Imran said, "By your life, I will study regularly from now, mom."
Indirect: Swearing by her life, Imran said to his mother that he would study regularly from then.

Direct: "By God", the boy said, "I will not let him go."
Indirect: Swearing by God the boy said that he would not let him go.

Direct: Aashiqa said, "By my life, I am ready to do every possible thing to educate them."
Indirect: Swearing by her life, Aashiqa said that she was ready to do every possible thing to educate them.

Rule- 18: Inverted Comma - এর বাইরে কোনো Phrase বা Clause থাকলে তা অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় শুরুতে বসে। এক্ষেত্রে Present Participle যুক্ত অংশ থাকলে তা শুরুতে লেখাই শ্রেয়।
Direct: "Are you brothers?" asked the mistress of the house, turning to the dervishes.
Indirect: Turning to the dervishes, the mistress of the house asked if they were brothers.

Direct: Walking towards the door, he said to me, "Wait here for sometime."
Indirect: Walking towards the door, he ordered me to wait there for sometime.

Direct: Admitting the truth, the man said, "I was really unaware of the fact."
Indirect: Admitting the truth, the man said that he had been really unaware of the fact.

Direct: Giving a round of applause, we said, "Happy birthday to you."
Indirect: Giving a round of applause, we wished her happy birthday.

Direct: In order to get back her lost daughter, she said, "I will give an amount of two lac taka who will find out my daughter."
Indirect: In order to get back her lost daughter, she said that she would give an amount of two lac taka who would find out her daughter.

Rule- 19: Direct Speech - এ Assertive Sentence এর শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন থাকলে Indirect করার সময় শুরুতে Being surprised লিখতে হয় এবং Reporting verb টিকে ask/asked দিয়ে পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।
Direct: She said to me, "You have remembered how she looked all these years?"
Indirect: Being surprised, she asked me if I had remembered how she had looked all those years.

Direct: My brother said to me, "You know him?"
Indirect: Being surprised, my brother asked me if I knew him.

Direct: Johnny said to Iddris, "Bangladesh lost the match?"
Indirect: Being surprised, Johnny asked Iddris if Bangladesh lost the match.

Direct: She said to her brother, "You failed in the exam? I frequently told you to study more and more."
Indirect: Being surprised, she asked her brother if he failed in the exam. She again said that she had frequently told him to study more and more.

Direct: I said to Rashed, "He is outside the country? But I saw him last night."
Indirect: Being surprised, I asked Rashed if he was outside the country and added that I had seen him the previous night.

Rule- 20: কোনো কোনো সময় বক্তব্য আংশিক দেওয়া থাকতে পারে, সেক্ষেত্রে পূর্ববর্তী অংশ থেকে আনতে হবে।
Direct: "Do you know why you are sent to school?"
"For playing with friends, father," said Jack.
Indirect: Father asked Jack whether he knew why he was sent to school. Jack told his father that he was sent to school for playing with friends.

Direct: Teacher said to Protiva, "How have you come to know about the news?"
"From internet, sir," she replied.
Indirect: Teacher asked Protiva how she had come to know about the news.
Protiva respectfully replied that she had come to know about it from internet.

Direct: Mustaq said, "Tell me your score in the test." Keya said, "7.5."
Indirect: Mustaq told Keya to tell him her score in the test. Keya said that her score was 7.5.

Direct: Rana said to Karim, "How much time did you take to learn the art of magic?"
"3 months only," replied Karim.
Indirect: Rana asked Karim how much time he (k) took to learn the art of magic.
Karim replied that he took 3 months to learn the art of magic.

Direct: "Why did you not attend my class yesterday?" "For illness."
Indirect: The teacher asked the boy why he (b) had not attended his (t) class the previous day. The boy replied that he (b) had not attended his class for illness.

Rule- 21: Sentence - এর প্রথমে Pronoun এবং পরে Noun থাকলে Pronoun এর পরিবর্তে Noun লেখাই শ্রেয়।
Direct: Imran said to her, "How was your exam?" Lifa said, "Very good."
Indirect: Imran asked Lifa how her exam had been. Lifa replied that her exam was very good.

Direct: "Where do you like to visit, sir," the ticket seller asked him. The man said, "I would like to visit Cox's Bazar."
Indirect: Addressing him as sir, the ticket seller asked the man where he (m) liked to visit. The man replied that he (m) would like to visit Cox's Bazar.

Direct: Selim said to him, "I am ready to go." Mr. Anwar said, "Grab a car. We are already late."
Indirect: Selim said to Mr. Anwar that he (S) was ready to go. Mr. Anwar told Selim to grab a car and added that they were already late.

Direct: The maid said to him, "Why do you beg?" The old man replied, "I am too old to work."
Indirect: The maid asked the old man why he (OM) begged. The old man replied that he (OM) was too old to work.

Rule- 22: Tag question থাকলে প্রথম অংশ (statement) এর পরিবর্তন interrogative এর নিয়মে করতে হবে এবং tag এর অংশ and assumed that যোগে assertive এর নিয়মে করতে হবে। অধিকন্তু, tag অংশটি affirmative থাকলে negative এবং negative থাকলে affirmative হবে।

Structure: Speaker + asked + listener + if + subject + verb .... and assumed that + subject + verb ...

Direct: Della said to Jim, "I’m me without my hair, ain’t I?"
Indirect: Della asked Jim if she was her without her hair and assumed that she was.

Direct: The man said, "We love our country, don't we?"
Indirect: The man asked if we loved our country and assumed that we did.

Direct: He said, "Everybody loves flower, don't they?"
Indirect: He asked if everybody loves flower and assumed that they do.

Direct: I said, "I did not come last night, did I?"
Indirect: I asked if I had not gone the previous night and assumed that I hadn't.

Direct: "They are very serious, aren't they?" Aashiqa said.
Indirect: Aashiqa asked if they were very serious and assumed that they were.

Rule- 23: নিচের ছক অনুসারেও অনেক সময় direct থেকে indirect করতে হয়।
(i) Good Morning/Good Evening/Good night / Happy Christmas:
Direct: I said to him, "Good morning."
Speaker + wished + listener + good evening/good night/good morning/ a happy Christmas/ বসে।
Indirect: I wished him good morning.

(ii) Thank You/ Curse the fog/ congratulations/ welcome:
Direct: He said to me, "Thank you."
Speaker + thanked/ cursed/ congratulated/ welcomed + listener (শ্রোতা) বসে।
Indirect: He thanked me.

(iii) Goodbye:
Direct: I said to him, "Goodbye."
Speaker + bade + goodbye বসে।
Indirect: I bade him goodbye.

(iv) Liar/ You a liar/ slow coach/ humourist:
Direct: He said to me, ''You liar.''
Speaker + called + listener + liar/ slow coach/ humourist
Indirect: He called me a liar.

Indirect to Direct Speech
নিচের indirect ও direct speech - দুটির পার্থক্য লক্ষ কর:
Indirect: The man told me that he would go to Dhaka the following day.
Direct: The man said to me, "I will go to Dhaka tomorrow."

উপরের উদাহরণ দুটিতে দেখতে পাচ্ছি, Indirect থেকে Direct speech - এ রূপান্তর করায় কিছু পরিবর্তন হয়েছে। যেমন:
1. Reporting verb: told এর পরিবর্তন করে said to লেখা হয়েছে।
2. Linker: that এর পরিবর্তে কমা (,) ও inverted কমা (‘‘ ’’) ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে।
3. Person: he পরিবর্তন করে I লেখা হয়েছে।
4. Tense: would go পরিবর্তন করে will go লেখা হয়েছে।
5. Time word: the following day এর পরিবর্তে tomorrow ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে।
এখানে আমরা এই পরিবর্তনগুলো শিখব।

Person
নিচের বাক্যগুলো দেখ:
(a) He told me that he had done his work. (এখানে he বলতে speaker - কে বুঝানো হয়েছে।)
He said to me, "I have done my work."

(b) He told me that I should do my work.
He said to me, "You should do your work." (এখানে I বলতে listener - কে বুঝিয়েছে।)

(c) I told you that he had lost his key. (he এখানে speaker বা listener কাউকে বুঝায়নি।)
I said to you, "He had done his duty."

উপরের বাক্যগুলোতে দেখা যায়, reported speech এর person যদি speaker কে বুঝায় তবে ঐ person এর number ও case অনুযায়ী first person বসবে। আবার reported speech এর person যদি listener - কে বুঝায় তবে ঐ person এর number ও case অনুযায়ী 2nd person বসবে। সর্বশেষ উদাহরণে reported speech এর person speaker বা listener - কাউকে বুঝায়নি। তাই person পরিবর্তন হয়নি।


Tesne
Reporting verb টি Present বা future হলে Reported speech এর verb এর কোনো Tense গত পরিবর্তন হবে না। যেমন:
(a) He says that he is ill.
→ He says, "I am ill."

(b) Shihab will say that he writes a letter.
→ Shihab will say, "I write a letter."

Reporting verb টি past tense হলে Indirect speech কে Direct speech - এ রূপান্তর করতে Reported speech এর verb টি অনুরূপ Present Tense হবে।
১ম verb টি past থাকলে তা Present হবে।
(a) He said that he wrote a letter.
→ He said, "I write a letter."
(b) He said that he was writing a letter.
→ He said, "I am writing a letter."
(c) He said that he had done well.
→ He said, "I have done well."

📝 মনে রাখবে Past Perfect এর সাথে the previous day থাকলে তা পরিবর্তিত হয়ে past simple হবে।
He said that he had come by bus the previous day.
→ He said, "I came by bus yesterday."

📝 would/ should থাকলে shall/ will, could থাকলে can, might থাকলে may বসবে।
(a) He said that he could fly.
→ He said, "I can fly."

তবে conditional sentence - এ would, could, should, might থাকলে তা পরিবর্তন হয় না।
(b) They said that it would be nice if they could meet.
→ They said, "It would be nice if they could meet."

Adverb of Time and Place
দূরত্বসূচক শব্দগুলো নৈকট্যসূচক হবে। যেমন:
📝That + time হবে → this + time
He said that he was coming that week.
He said, "I am coming this week."

একইভাবে that day থাকলে today, that night থাকলে tonight, that month থাকলে this month, that year থাকলে this year ইত্যাদি।

📝 the previous day এর পরিবর্তে yesterday বসবে। একইভাবে, the previous week হবে the last week, the previous year হবে the last year ইত্যাদি।

📝 The following day বা the next day এর পরিবর্তে tomorrow বসবে। একইভাবে the following year হবে the next year, the following month থাকলে the next month ইত্যাদি।

📝 বাক্যের শেষে before থাকলে তা ago হবে, then থাকলে now হবে।

Linkers ও Punctuation
Assertive sentence
Speaker + said + that উঠে গিয়ে inverted coma শুরু + Subject (capital letter) + verb + বাকি অংশ + full নিচের বাক্য দুটি দেখ:
(a) He told me that his pen had run out.
→ He said to me, "My pen has run out."
(b) Sejan told her that he could not get up early in the morning.
→ Sejan said to her, "I cannot get up early in the morning."

উপরের ব্যাখ্যায় দেখা যাচ্ছে, speaker - এর পর said বসবে + that বাদ দিয়ে inverted comma + subject (capital letter) + verb + extension + full stop + inverted comma শেষ।
মনে রাখবে, listener থাকলে said to বসে।

Interrogative Sentence
নিচের বাক্যগুলো দেখ:
(a) The teacher asked me why I was talking in the class.
→ The teacher said to me, "Why are you talking in the class?"
(b) Runa asked Sejan if/ whether he had done his homework.
→ Runa said to Sejan, "Have you done your homework?"

উপরের বাক্যে দেখা যাচ্ছে, speaker + asked এর পরিবর্তে said to + listener + if থাকলে তা বাদ দিয়ে inverted comma শুরু + Wh word (যদি থাকে) + সাহায্যকারী verb + subject + বাকি অংশ + প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন + inverted comma শেষ।

মনে রাখবে Reported speech এ সাহায্যকারী verb না থাকলে এবং verb টি past হলে সাহায্যকারী verb হিসেবে do/does বসবে। তবে past perfect এর সাথে the previous day থাকলে সাহায্যকারী verb হিসেবে did বসবে। যেমন:
(a) She asked me if I knew her.
→ She said to me, "Do you know me?"
(b) Dulal asked me if I had gone there the previous day.
→ Dulal said to me, "Did you go there yesterday?"

Imperative Sentence
নিচের বাক্যগুলো দেখ:
(a) The teacher advised the students to speak the truth.
→ The teacher said to the students, "Speak the truth."
(b) He requested me not to disturb him.
→ He said to me, "Don't disturb me, please."
→ He said to me, "Please, don't disturb me."

উপরের বাক্যে দেখা যাচ্ছে, প্রথমে speaker + said to + listener + to বাদ যাবে ও inverted comma শুরু + Verb বসবে + বাকি অংশ + full stop + inverted comma শেষ।

মনে রাখবে, reporting verb হিসেবে requested থাকলে reported speech এর শুরুতে বা শেষে please ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

→ to এর সাথে not থাকলে reported speech এর শুরুতে Don't লিখতে হয়।
→ to এর সাথে never থাকলে reported speech এর শুরুতে Never লিখতে হয়।

Optative Sentence
নিচের বাক্যগুলো দেখ:
(a) Father wished me that God might bless me.
→ Father said to me, "May God bless you."
(b) Mother prayed for me that I might be happy in my life.
→ Mother said to me, "May you be happy in your life."

উপরের বাক্যে দেখা যাচ্ছে, প্রথমে speaker বসবে + said to + listener + that বাদ দিয়ে inverted comma শুরু + May + subject + বাকি অংশ + full stop + inverted comma শেষ।

Exclamatory Sentence
নিচের বাক্যগুলো দেখ:
(a) The man exclaimed that the bird was very fine.
→ The man said, "How fine the bird is!"
(b) He exclaimed that it was a great pity.
→ He said, "What a pity!"

প্রথমে speaker + said + that বাদ দিয়ে inverted comma শুরু + How/ What + শেষের অংশ + প্রথম অংশ + বিস্ময়বোধক চিহ্ন + inverted comma শেষ।

মনে রাখবে, Very/ great থাকলে তা বাদ যাবে। adjective এর পূর্বে How এবং Noun এর পূর্বে great বসবে।

Contextual Speech
একটি reported speech - এর পর and added that/ further said that/ also added that ইত্যাদি থাকলে তা বাদ যাবে এবং এই speech গুলো পরপর লিখে যেতে হবে। এক্ষেত্রে বিভিন্নভাবে punctuation ও reporting verb লেখা যায়। লক্ষ কর:
(a) I said that he had been very serious then. But I added that I did not know what had happened.
→ I said, "He had been very serious then. But I don't know what happened."
→ "He had been very serious," said I. "But I don't know what happened."

(b) Mother told me that I should maintain my routine properly and asked me if I didn't think it was good for my study.
→ Mother said to me, "You should maintain your routine properly. Don't you think it is good for your study?"

📝 Reporting verb এর সাথে politely/ respectfully থাকলে reported speech এর শুরুতে/ শেষে sir শব্দটি লেখা যায়।
(a) The student politely said that he was sorry.
→ The student said, "I am sorry, sir."
(b) Rajib respectfully asked me if I was busy.
→ Rajib said to me, "Are you busy, sir?"

📝 Speaker + apologized থাকলে speaker + said + that এর পরিবর্তে Inverted comma এবং Sorry লিখতে হয়।
(a) He apologized and said that/ and added that he would not do it again.
→ He said, "Sorry. I will not do it again."
The stranger apologized politely.
→ The stranger said, "Sorry, sir."

📝 replied in the negative থাকলে No এবং replied in the affirmative থাকলে Yes লিখতে হয়।
(a) Mitu replied in the negative and added that she had changed her decision.
→ Mitu said, "No, I have changed my decision."
(b) Rimel replied in the affirmative and added that he was very much interested.
→ Rimel said, "Yes, I am very much interested."

📝 Addressing as যোগে কোনো Noun বা Noun phrase থাকলে Addressing as বাদ যাবে এবং Noun/ Noun phrase টি Reported speech এর শুরুতে বা শেষে বসবে।
(a) Addressing as friends, the king asked them if they were hungry.
→ The king asked them, "Friends, are you hungry?"
→ The king asked them, "Are you hungry, friends?"
(b) Addressing as his dear sons, the teacher advised the students to read attentively.
→ The teacher said to the students, "My dear sons, read attentively."

📝 Swearing by Allah/God ইত্যাদি থাকলে swearing বাদ যাবে এবং reported speech এর শুরুতে by Allah/God বসবে।
Swearing by Allah he said that he would not leave the house.
→ He said, "By Allah, I will not leave the house."
→ "By Allah", he said, "I will not leave the house."

📝 Speaker + wished + listener + good morning/ good evening/ happy Christmas ইত্যাদি শুভেচ্ছা প্রকাশক শব্দ থাকলে speaker + said লিখে inverted comma এর মধ্যে শুভেচ্ছা প্রকাশক শব্দ লিখতে হয়। যেমন:
(a) I wished him good morning.
→ I said, "Good morning."
(b) I wished him happy birthday.
→ I said, "Happy birthday."

📝 Speaker + thanked/ congratulated/ welcomed থাকলে speaker + said লিখে inverted comma এর মধ্যে thank/ congratulation/ welcome লিখতে হয়।
(a) He thanked me very much.
→ He said, "Thank you very much."
(b) He congratulated me.
→ He said, "Congratulation!"

📝 Speaker + called + listener + liar, shrewd, humorist ইত্যাদি নামে listener - কে ডাকলে/ গাল মন্দ করলে speaker + said লিখে inverted comma এর মধ্যে liar, shrewd, humorist লিখতে হয়।
He called me humorist.
→ He said, "Humorist."
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